Following the March 2011 Fukushima accident, Japan shut down all 54 reactors in its nuclear fleet. Faced with the high cost of fossil-fuel imports, soaring electricity prices and the need to combat global warming, the Japanese government launched a plan in 2012 to reopen its nuclear power plants, even though power generation will not return to pre-Fukushima levels. In August 2015, a reactor at the Sendai power plant was the first of Japan's 43 workable reactors to be brought back online.
Prior to the Fukushima disaster, nuclear energyEnergy produced in nuclear power plants. The enormous amount of heat released during fission of uranium atom nuclei is transferred to water... accounted for nearly one third of Japan's electricityForm of energy resulting from the movement of charged particles (electrons) through a conductor... production, placing the country third behind the United States and France in terms of installed capacityThe power generation capacity of a particular plant. It is usually expressed in megawatts (or sometimes even gigawatts)... . The Japanese authorities even planned on raising the share of nuclear powerIn physics, power is the amount of energy supplied by a system per unit time. In simpler terms, power can be viewed as energy output... to 50%, and three reactors were under construction.
Following the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011, causing a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant, all of the country's 54 reactors were gradually shut down. In September 2012, the ruling Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) announced that it would phase out nuclear power within 30 years. To compensate for the power generation deficit, Japan, whose domestic energy resources are limited, has promoted energy conservation and efficiency, developed renewable energies and increased imports of fossil fuels (coalCoal is ranked by its degree of transformation or maturity, increasing in carbon content from... , oil and gas). Coal's share of electricity generation rose to 31% in 2014 from 25% in 2010, while that of oil increased to 11% from 8%. Natural gas experienced the fastest growth over the period, rising to 46% in 2014 from 29% in 2010. All together, fossil fuels account for 88% of the country's electricity.
The surge in imports had a major impact on the economy and on industrial and consumer electricity bills (up 30% since 2011). In addition, carbon emissions have increased by 10%, forcing Japan to abandon the Kyoto ProtocolInternational agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change... objectives.
88%: the share of fossil fuels in Japan's electricity mix after the Fukushima accident
Sendai Reactor Restarted in Summer 2015
In December 2012, the DPJ lost the election. The new government, led by Shinzo Abe's Liberal Democratic Party, made the return to nuclear power one of its policy objectives, even though polls showed that a majority of the population was opposed to nuclear. To achieve this goal, a new nuclear safety agency called the Nuclear Regulation Authority was created. The NRA acts independently of the government and the power utilities. Stricter safety standards were adopted for Japanese operators. The decision to reopen a nuclear power plant must be made jointly by the NRA and local authorities, with the consent of prefectural and municipal assemblies and the approval of residents, though a referendum is not required.
On August 14, 2015, the No. 1 reactor at the Sendai power plant again began producing electricity, following a $100-million-plus upgrade to comply with new safety standards. The second reactor is expected to come back online in October. Due to the proximity of the Sakurajima volcano, located 60 kilometers from Sendai, special procedures were devised to shut down the reactor and protect the fuelFuel is any solid, liquid or gaseous substance or material that can be combined with an oxidant... in case of an eruption.
Nuclear energy is expected to supply 20%–22% of Japan's electricity by 2030.
Electricity Production in 2030
Japan's energy policy is aimed at meeting a dual challenge: revive the economy and cut greenhouse gas (ghg) Gas with physical properties that cause the Earth's atmosphere to warm up. There are a number of naturally occurring greenhouse gases... emissions by 26% from 2013 levels (post Fukushima) by 2030. To achieve this goal, the share of nuclear power and renewable energyEnergy sources that are naturally replenished so quickly that they can be considered inexhaustible on a human time scale... in the country's electrical supply would have to total 20%–22% and 22–24%, respectively.
Meeting the nuclear objective would require putting some 15 reactors back into operation. It would be feasible in three to five years if one reactor was brought online every two to three months. Not all the reactors will be restarted however. Plant operators prefer to invest in upgrading the youngest and most powerful units. In addition to permanently disabling six reactors at the Fukushima plant, the authorities have decided to definitively shutter five reactors at other locations. Nuclear waste disposal is another key issue with multi-dimensional aspects. Apart from the major challenge of cleaning up the contamination at Fukushima, another problem is how to store plutonium and uraniumGray, very dense radioactive metal that is relatively abundant in the Earth's crust and oceans in the form of UO2... produced by the power plants. There is also some uncertainty as to how Japan will reprocess its spent nuclear fuel, since the Rokkasho reprocessing plant continues to be idle.
In the field of renewable energy, Japan was the world's second-largest investor in renewables in 2014, behind China. Symbolizing its ambition, the country has installed over 20 GW of solar PV capacity since 2012. At present, renewable energy sources account for 12% of Japan’s electricity generation, with water power representing 9%.