The One Ocean Summit in Brest, from February 9 to 11, is the first major international gathering entirely dedicated to the oceans. It precedes a United Nations conference on the oceans that will be held in Lisbon at the end of June. And don't forget to celebrate World Ocean Day on June 8 each year.
Why is it so important?
The ocean covers more than 70% of the world's surface, giving the Earth its unforgettable image of a "blue planet". It is the largest reserve of the biosphere, which is the sum of all living organisms, whether animals, plants or bacteriaTiny living organisms that are made up of a single cell that does not have a distinct nucleus, such as a prokaryotic cell... . It is also the 'lungs' of our planet, generating 50% of the oxygen it needs and absorbing 25% of CO2See Carbon Dioxid emissions. It also absorbs most of the heatIn the field of statistical thermodynamics today, heat refers to the transfer of the thermal agitation of the particles making up matter... that our anthropogenic activity has generated in excess since the industrial revolution and is therefore our great ally in the fight against global warmingGlobal warming, also called planetary warming or climate change... . And it is an endless source of food, energy and mineral resources.
5 oceans and a myriad of seas
We often talk about 'the ocean', but geographers list five oceans: Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic (around the North Pole) and Southern (around the South Pole Antarctica). The Southern Ocean was officially added to the list in June 2021, demonstrating the importance now given to the cryosphere(from the Greek kryos, cold) - All the frozen areas of the planet... - from the Greek kryos, cold - which refers to the frozen areas of the planet.
There are hundreds of seas. A sea is much smaller than an ocean. It can be closed (Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov), almost closed (Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Red Sea...) or part of the oceans (the Yellow Sea in the Pacific Ocean, the North Sea or the Caribbean Sea in the Atlantic Ocean).
A wide range of topics
The Brest summit agenda includes a wide range of issues:
- Marine energies: off-shore wind powerIn physics, power is the amount of energy supplied by a system per unit time. In simpler terms, power can be viewed as energy output... , tidal energy, currents, waves, etc.
- The effects of global warming on ocean levels, halieutic(from the Greek halieus, fisherman) - Adjective that designates what is related to fishing (example: ... (fishing) and nutrition, biodiversityRefers to the natural diversity of living organisms. It can be measured through the study of species, genes and ecosystems. (e.g. corals), etc.
- The melting of ice packs, which is a major issue for the Arctic region.
- New technologies and new jobs.
- Energy savings in maritime transport and port facilities.
- Pollution of all kinds and Sea regulation.
A global approach together with climate and biodiversity
The Brest summit brings together some twenty heads of state and government, the United Nations, the European Union, etc. But it also includes workshops with NGOs, associations, especially youth associations, researchers, cities and regions and large companies. The involvement of the 'civil society', i.e. citizens, has become a key feature of the 'Conferences of Parties' (COPThe "Conferences of Parties" (COP) bring together every year since 1995 ... ) on climate and biodiversity.
The Brest summit is part of this series of 'universal' actions for the preservation of the planet, and there will be many of them in 2022:
- 2-3 June: Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (Brazil)
- 27 June - 1 July: United Nations Ocean Conference in Lisbon (Portugal)
- 7-18 November: COP27 climate conference in Sharm el-Sheikh (Egypt)...