Exploring

Infographics

Let's put waste in its place!

Understand waste and make it useful !
Read about and understand different
types of treatment
Apply your knowledge
about waste treatment
Test your knowledge with
the final challenge
Learn more about
Composting
1. What it is
Fermentable waste undergoes a biological treatment process in an oxygen-rich environment (aerobic fermentation). This "chemical" reclamation of waste produces organic amendments and fertilizer materials.
3. Constraints
Selective collection and/or sorting are necessary to separate the organic fraction. Waste treatment involving large amounts of waste causes the temperature to rise above 60°C (140°F). However, this is also an advantage because it helps eliminate pathogenic germs.
2. Waste concerned
Green waste (leaves, mowed grass clippings and hedge trimmings) sometimes mixed with sludge, food and household waste, and livestock waste.
4. Result
Mass is reduced by around two-thirds as water evaporates and carbon dioxide (CO2) is released. Organic matter is reorganized and stabilized.
 
Test your knowledge
Choose three types of waste that can be composted :
Biodegradable waste
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Dispersed toxic waste
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Learn more about
Methanation
1. What it is
Fermentable waste undergoes anaerobic fermentation in an oxygen-free environment, which produces methane biogas (CH4), the same molecule as the methane in natural gas. This process makes it possible to recover both energy (biogas can be used as a combustible to generate heat and electricity, or as fuel, and can even injected into the natural gas network) and organic amendments.
3. Constraints
A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) must be maintained throughout the fermentation process (a portion of the biogas produced can be used to maintain this temperature). Small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an extremely toxic gas, are emitted as a by-product of the fermentation process. Rigorous testing is required to confirm the safety of the solid and liquid residues before they can be used as fertilizer.
2. Waste concerned
Any non-woody organic waste. This includes household and agricultural waste, as well as sludge and some industrial effluents.
4. Result
A combustible gas fraction (55%-60% methane (CH4)) is produced, along with a non-combustible fraction (40%-45% carbon dioxide (CO2)) and a digestate made up of a liquid fraction that can directly be used as a fertilizer and a solid fraction that may be used as manure or composted.
 
Test your knowledge
Choose three types of waste that can be methanized :
Biodegradable waste
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Dispersed toxic waste
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Learn more about
Incineration
1. What it is
Waste is burned to recover heat, electricity or a combination of the two in a process known as co-generation, or combined heat and power (CHP). Combustion is started with the help of fuel and continues on its own afterwards.
3. Constraints
Stack gas must be treated as it can be polluting and even highly toxic.
2. Waste concerned
Household waste and some types of hazardous waste that is incinerated separately.
4. Result
Mass of incoming waste is reduced by 70%, while volume is reduced by 90%.
 
Test your knowledge
Choose three types of waste that can be incinerated :
Biodegradable waste
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Dispersed toxic waste
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Learn more about
Recycling
1. What it is
Reusing materials from waste to produce new consumer goods. Reuse is a specific type of recycling that requires no processing (example: returnable glass bottles).
3. Constraints
A recycling policy must be in place, as well as selective sorting and collection based on this policy. The European Union has set a recycling target of 50% of household waste by 2020.
2. Waste concerned
Paper/cardboard, plastics, glass, rubble, fabrics, rubber and batteries. Wastewater may also be added to this list.
4. Result
Embodied energy, or the total energy required to make a product, is reduced, as are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and industrial water consumption. For example, in France in 2010, recycling made it possible to use 17 million fewer barrels of oil, reduced CO2 emissions by 3.6% and water use by 3%.
 
Test your knowledge
Choose three types of waste that can be recycled :
Biodegradable waste
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Dispersed toxic waste
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
final challenge How does it work?
For each type of waste   ...select the appropriate treatment method
Question 1/5 Select the appropriate treatment method
Biodegradable waste
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Question 2/5 Select the appropriate treatment method
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Question 3/5 Select the appropriate treatment method
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Question 4/5 Select the appropriate treatment method
Dispersed toxic waste
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Question 5/5 Select the appropriate treatment method
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Bravo! Oops! 74% correct
Our recommendations Review the following waste treatment processes
Composting
Methanation
Incineration
Recycling
Different types of waste: :
Biodegradable waste
Kitchen waste, garden waste, household waste (ash, newspapers, tissues, natural fiber fabrics), agricultural waste.
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Paper and cardboard, plastics, some types of organic materials, glass, metals, etc.
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Wood industry waste, office waste, process scraps, discarded material.
Dispersed toxic waste
Batteries, paint sludge, engine oil, laundry and other detergents, solvents, inks, film processing products, medications.
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Cell phones, computers, televisions, household appliances.
 
 
 
 

Understand waste and make it useful

 
Read about and understand different types of treatment
 
 
Check out the final challenge on your computer to apply your knowledge about waste treatment !
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com
 

Learn more aboutComposting

  1. 1. What it is

    Fermentable waste undergoes a biological treatment process in an oxygen-rich environment (aerobic fermentation). This "chemical" reclamation of waste produces organic amendments and fertilizer materials.
  2. 2. Waste concerned

    Green waste (leaves, mowed grass clippings and hedge trimmings) sometimes mixed with sludge, food and household waste, and livestock waste.
  3. 3. Constraints

    Selective collection and/or sorting are necessary to separate the organic fraction. Waste treatment involving large amounts of waste causes the temperature to rise above 60°C (140°F). However, this is also an advantage because it helps eliminate pathogenic germs.
  4. 4. Result

    Mass is reduced by around two-thirds as water evaporates and carbon dioxide (CO2) is released. Organic matter is reorganized and stabilized.

Types of waste that can be composted

 
Biodegradable waste
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com
 

Learn more about methanation

  1. 1. What it is

    Fermentable waste undergoes anaerobic fermentation in an oxygen-free environment, which produces methane biogas (CH4), the same molecule as the methane in natural gas. This process makes it possible to recover both energy (biogas can be used as a combustible to generate heat and electricity, or as fuel, and can even injected into the natural gas network) and organic amendments.
  2. 2. Waste concerned

    Any non-woody organic waste. This includes household and agricultural waste, as well as sludge and some industrial effluent.
  3. 3. Constraints

    A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) must be maintained throughout the fermentation process (a portion of the biogas produced can be used to maintain this temperature). Small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an extremely toxic gas, are emitted as a by-product of the fermentation process. Rigorous testing is required to confirm the safety of the solid and liquid residues before they can be used as fertilizer.
  4. 4. Result

    A combustible gas fraction (55%-60% methane (CH4)) is produced, along with a non-combustible fraction (40%-45% carbon dioxide (CO2)) and a digestate made up of a liquid fraction that can directly be used as a fertilizer and a solid fraction that may be used as manure or composted.

Types of waste that can be methanized

 
Biodegradable waste
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com
 

Learn more about incineration

  1. 1. What it is

    Waste is burned to recover heat, electricity or a combination of the two in a process known as co-generation, or combined heat and power (CHP). Combustion is started with the help of fuel and continues on its own afterwards.
  2. 2. Waste concerned

    Household waste and some types of hazardous waste that is incinerated separately.
  3. 3. Constraints

    Stack gas must be treated as it can be polluting and even highly toxic.
  4. 4. Result

    Mass of incoming waste is reduced by 70%, while volume is reduced by 90%.

Types of waste that can be incinerated :

 
Biodegradable waste
 
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
 
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com
 

Learn more about recycling

  1. 1. What it is

    Reusing materials from waste to produce new consumer goods. Reuse is a specific type of recycling that requires no processing (example: returnable glass bottles).
  2. 2. Waste concerned

    Paper/cardboard, plastics, glass, rubble, fabrics, rubber and batteries. Wastewater may also be added to this list.
  3. 3. Constraints

    A recycling policy must be in place, as well as selective sorting and collection based on this policy. The European Union has set a recycling target of 50% of household waste by 2020.
  4. 4. Result

    Embodied energy, or the total energy required to make a product, is reduced, as are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and industrial water consumption. For example, in France in 2010, recycling made it possible to use 17 million fewer barrels of oil, reduced CO2 emissions by 3.6% and water use by 3%.

Types of waste that can be recycled :

 
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
 
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
 
Dispersed toxic waste
 
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com
 

Different types of waste

 
Biodegradable waste
Kitchen waste, garden waste, household waste (ash, newspapers, tissues, natural fiber fabrics), agricultural waste.
 
Recyclable household waste and non-hazardous industrial waste
Paper and cardboard, plastics, some types of organic materials, glass, metals, etc.
 
Non-hazardous business and commercial waste
Wood industry waste, office waste, process scraps, discarded material.
 
Dispersed toxic waste
Batteries, paint sludge, engine oil, laundry and other detergents, solvents, inks, film processing products, medications.
 
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Cell phones, computers, televisions, household appliances.
source : Planète Énergies 5ème Gauche for planete-energies.com

For many citizens, and especially young people, sorting waste comes naturally. But do you know just how and why waste should be sorted? Do you know which items can be recycled, which will be incinerated, and which can be composted? Try out this fun and easy game to understand the different types of waste and the appropriate treatment for each one. The brief information sheets outline the main treatment methods (composting, anaerobic fermentation (methanation)Fermentation in the absence of air or free oxygen. , incinerationTechnique used to convert waste into energy. The waste is burned, producing heat, power or both. and recyclingAny waste treatment process that uses materials from identical or similar end-of-life products or manufacturing waste to produce new products. ). Your mission is to connect each type of waste to the right method. In the final challenge, you will be asked to answer five questions to make sure that everything is clear.