What Energy Sources Are Consumed in Germany?
This chart shows the breakdown of primary energyAll energy sources that have not undergone any conversion process and remain in their natural state.. consumption in Germany:
|LigniteRock whose properties are somewhere between peat and coal. It has a carbon content of about 70 to 75%...||9.1%|
|CoalCoal is ranked by its degree of transformation or maturity, increasing in carbon content from...||8.6%|
- Total consumption: 306 million metric ton of oil equivalent (toe)Unit of energy measurement corresponding to the energy produced by the combustion of a ton of oil... (Mtoe), or 12,815 gigajoules (GJ), representing 157.3 GJ per capita (France: 245 Mtoe, i.e., 148.6 GJ per capita; world: 15,000 Mtoe).
- Energy MixThe range of energy sources of a region. Still Dominated by Fossil Fuels. Oil, gas and coal/lignite account for 78% of primary energy consumption. Germany imports 41.1% of its oil (Russia, Norway), 42% of its gas (Russia, Norway, the Netherlands) and 9% of its coal (Russia, the United States, Colombia).
- Nuclear powerIn physics, power is the amount of energy supplied by a system per unit time. In simpler terms, power can be viewed as energy output... in steep decline. In the wake of Fukushima, Germany scheduled the complete shutdown of all its nuclear power plants by the end of 2022.
- Renewables (wind, solar, biomassIn the energy sector, biomass is defined as all organic matter of plant or animal origin... ) are progressing steadily. In ten years, these sources rose from 8.9% (2009) to 14.8% (2019) of total primary energy consumption.
What Is This Energy Used For?
Here is a table detailing each sector’s share of final energy consumption:
|Residential||Gas, oil, electricityForm of energy resulting from the movement of charged particles (electrons) through a conductor... , renewables||26.16%|
|Industry||Gas, coal, electricity||27.55%|
|Commercial (offices, services, businesses)||Electricity, gas, oil||14.58%|
|Agriculture, fishing and construction||Oil, biomass, electricity||1.62%|
As in France, two of the three biggest energy consumers are the transportation and housing sectors. However, Germany’s robust industrial sector is also highly energy intensive.
Source : Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen
How Is Electricity Generated in Germany?
Share of the various energy sources used for power generation:
* Of which:
- Wind: 56.2%
- Solar: 21.2%
- Other (geothermalDescribes the technology used to tap subsurface heat to produce energy... , biomass, etc.): 22.6%
- Coal is still the second largest source of electricity generation, despite its share shrinking by 7.5% between 2018 and 2019.
- Renewables are steadily rising, increasing from 15% in 2008 to 36.6% in 2019 (up 4.6% versus 2018). They are the primary source of electricity in Germany.
- Nuclear is in decline and should be eliminated following the shutdown of three power plants in late 2021 and three others by the end of 2022.
How Much carbon dioxide (co₂)Along with water vapor, carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) in the Earth's atmosphere... Does Germany Emit?
This graph shows the change in CO2 emissions per capita since 2000 (in metric tons of CO2):
Source : Eurostat
Germany is the country that emits the most CO2 in the European Union, accounting for a quarter of total E.U. emissions alone. Emissions are slowly falling, partly due to transportation and heatIn the field of statistical thermodynamics today, heat refers to the transfer of the thermal agitation of the particles making up matter... production (coal/gas).
Where Is Electricity Generated?
- In coal-fired and gas-fired power plants, as well as a few oil-fired plants.
- In wind and solar farms, such as the Weesow-Willmersdorf solar park.
- In waste incinerationTechnique used to convert waste into energy. The waste is burned, producing heat, power or both. and waste-based biogasA product of the methanation (anaerobic digestion) of organic waste... plants.
- In hydropower facilities, such as the Iffezheim power plant.
What Are Germany’s Objectives?
1. Phase out nuclear power, reduce the share of fossil fuels in the energy mix and in particular cut its (still heavy) dependence on coal, a major source of CO2 emissions.
2. Transition to an energy system based on renewables in the second half of the century.
3. Reduce greenhouse gas (ghg) Gas with physical properties that cause the Earth's atmosphere to warm up. There are a number of naturally occurring greenhouse gases... emissions by 80% to 95% by 2050 versus 1990 levels.
4. Halve final energy consumption by 2050 (the same target as France).
How Can They Be Achieved?
1. By shutting down nuclear power plants (by end-2022) and coal-fired plants (by 2038 at the latest).
2. By developing renewables on a massive scale.
3. By re-thinking sustainable mobility and cutting the industrial sector’s dependence on oil imports.
4. By reorganizing its grid for improved power distribution, and by increasing its electricity storage capacity.
Quick Quiz: Energy and You
- After shutting down its last six nuclear power plants in 2022, Germany will then close its coal-fired plants. But when will it do this?
Germany will begin closing down its coal-fired plants in 2021. The aim is to phase out coal-fired electricity generation by 2038 at the latest, and possibly by 2035.
- Which German automaker is set to conduct a zero-emission, smart mobility trial on a Greek island?
The Volkswagen Group, which has chosen Astypalaia, a small island in the Dodecanese, for an all-electric mobility trial project, with e-cars, e-scooters, e-bikes and a ride-sharing service. All public and private modes of transportation on the island will be electric, with the number of vehicles set to drop from 1,500 to 1,000. The Greek government will also set up wind and solar power facilities to supply the electricity.
- Germany wants to develop, on a national and even international scale, a renewable energyEnergy sources that are naturally replenished so quickly that they can be considered inexhaustible on a human time scale...
source that is not yet widely used. What is it?
HydrogenThe simplest and lightest atom, the most abundant element in the universe. , which a source of renewable energy provided that it is produced by water electrolysis, and that this process is powered by carbon-free electricity. In June 2020, Germany created the National Hydrogen Council to implement its strategy for decarbonizing the steelmaking, chemical, transportation and other sectors. The council has set aside €7 billion for research and infrastructure, with a view to producing 5 gigawatts of hydrogen power by 2030.
- Where is the largest solar farm in Germany?
Located in Werneuchen (Brandenburg), 26 kilometers northeast of Berlin, the Weesow-Willmersdorf solar park will have 465,000 solar modules upon completion, supplying green power to nearly 50,000 homes and avoiding approximately 129,000 metric tons of CO2 emissions annually. The first section came on stream in December 2020.
- What is the largest hydropower plant in Germany?
The Iffezheim hydropower plant, a dam on the Rhine at the French-German border, straddling the towns of Iffezheim in Germany and Roppenheim in France. With its five turbines, the facility, built on the German bank, is the country’s most powerful hydropower plant, and one of the biggest in Europe, supplying power to 250,000 homes.